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The driving class to convert Budgie syntax into real language code is Budgie. Its internal conversion process consists of three steps:
  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.

1. Tokenization

Given raw syntax as string(s), it must be "tokenized" (parsed) into Budgie nodes. Budgie nodes come in three varieties, each of which implement the exported IBudgieNode interface:
  • BlankNode: Blank line with no non-whitespace characters.
  • CommandNode: Command name followed by any number of arguments.
  • TextNode: Raw text passed to a command.
For example, given the following line:
variable : foo number { operation : 1 plus 2 }
The corresponding Budgie file's node structure in JSON would look like:
"nodes": [
"args": [
"args": [
"command": "operation",
"type": "Command"
"command": "variable",
"type": "Command"


Parsing raw Budgie strings is done by SourceFileParser, which uses a SourceLineParser to convert each line of the input file. You can directly create a BudgieFile containing IBudgieNodes using one without a driving Budgie context:
import { SourceFileParser } from "budgielang";
const parser = new SourceFileParser();
`print: ("Hello world!")`

2. Rendering

Given a BudgieFile, each "line" (root-level node) is converted to an intermediate LineResults instance. The LineResults class contains an array of CommandResult instances, which store the generated language-specific code and desired indentation, and whether the line should have a semicolon.
Semicolons and indentation levels are separate from the CommandResult text because nested commands need to ignore them. For example, operation : b (increase by) c creates a semicolon and is indented normally on its own, but not inside list push : a { operation : b (increase by) c }.


Rendering is managed by a RenderContext instance containing a plethora of public methods. It has references to the output Language, Command classes that can render nodes to the language, and current directory path of the parsed file. The RenderContext instance is exposed to each Command for recursion.
The most notable method is also convert, and is directly called by the parent Budgie. This convert takes in a BudgieFile and returns an array of LineResults.
import { CSharp, RenderContext, SourceFileParser } from "budgielang";
const parser = new SourceFileParser();
const context = new RenderContext(new CSharp());
const BudgieFile = parser.parseLines([
`print: ("Hello world!")`
// System.Console.WriteLine("Hello world!");
The recursive step to convert IBudgieNodes into LineResults is done by an internal BudgieNodeRenderer.


Each available Budgie command is keyed to a Command sub-class by name. They're retrieved by name by the BudgieNodeRenderer using a CommandsBag. Raw Budgie describes the commands in lower case; Command sub-classes have the corresponding name in PascalCase. For example, list push corresponds to ListPushCommand in src/Rendering/Commands/ListPushCommand.ts.
Commands render LineResults through their render function.


Each Command stores a CommandMetadata member with some basic information on the command, such as its name and description. The metadata also includes the expected parameters the command takes in as an. IParameter array. These are validated by the BudgieNodeRenderer against what the command is passed before commands are rendered.

3. Merging

Once a file's LineResults are collected into an array, they're conglomerated into a string[] of output language lines.
This boils down to an advanced string concatenation: each result of each LineResult is added to the overall output, factoring in indentation.
Last modified 4yr ago